This text, which is a synthesis of half of my master, has previously been published in Norwegian at both Putsj http://putsj.no/appell/uforsvarlig-olje-i-barentshavet-article6979-373.html and Spireorg http://spireorg.no/spire-i-media/uforsvarlig-olje-i-barentshavet .
Today, the Norwegian Government handed out 13 new licenses to oil companies, including areas in the South-East Barents Sea, which is the exact part I wrote my master about, because this particular area is so vulnerable and needs protection against the oil industry.
The Barents Sea is only a small part of the entire Arctic region. However, 75% of all life in the Arctic region lives in the Barents Sea in the most fragile fases of their life cycle, because this is where the ice edge stretches, and it’s an ideal place to find food. This zone is therefore particularly vulnerable for all life in and around the sea.
Even under safe circumstances, with no oil spills, oil drilling in the Barents Sea would still present a massive risk due to the effect the seismic has on the cod fry. Consequences of seismic drilling for larger mammals can be fatal. Tests where krill have been exposed to seismic sound waves have shown that fry die or get severe damages, and young krill loses its sensory functions and starts to swim on the side or up-side-down. When oil drilling shows this much impact on the lowest stage in the food chain it creates a threat for the entire ecosystem.
Unfinished Seabed analysis
The seabed in the Barents Sea is still being mapped and we won’t know the entirety of the biodiversity there before 2020, when the Mareano- examination is set to be finished. The seabed samples we are basing the facts on today are estimates made during the 2nd World War by Sovjet submarine reconnaissance. In the years after, many new species have been introduces, both former unknown and foreign species from other oceans. We do not know the full extent of what kinds of life forms that lives at the bottom of this seabed. What we do know is that these particular areas of the Arctic are very special and protection worthy, and should never be exposed to oil business.
Oil spill preparedness
In the case of an oil spill, this region is particularly vulnerable. Good oil spill preparedness is practically impossible with todays technology and the wild nature in the Barents Sea. Oil spill readiness equipment used in non-ice filled waters will not work in the Barents Sea. This has to do with how the oil is discovered. Under normal circumstances with no ice, satellites in space is continuously taking pictures of the sea surface which is constantly being monitored and checked. With this method, an oil spill can be discovered early.
Conditions are different in the Barents Sea. When the ice density is over 40% the ice becomes too white for the surveillance equipment to notice anything happening under the ice, and as a result, the oil spill would be impossible to discover. In ice covered waters, this can cause that the oil can drift under the ice for several months before it suddenly appears at the coast. In the meantime it can have done irreparable damage.
Other traditional methods for oil capture is in situ burning, which is to light on fire the oil that has been spilt in controlled areas. This would also not work in ice covered waters. Another method that has been attempted in open waters is to lower the oil in the water using enormous amounts of boiling water. This would be catastrophic because for the animals and plants in the Arctic that are dependent on the exact temperatures they have adapted to.
Hard working conditions
If an accident were to occur, the conditions for the clean up would be severely demanding. This region is situated far off shore, with extreme weather conditions and six months of dark season, and it is not uncommon that waves can grow to be 20-25 meters. This makes the clean up work nothing but dangerous for the workers. Both human and animal life will be put in danger for an industry the world community now works together to put to an end.
The oil licenses have been handed out, but it is a long process from the licensing to the actual drilling and exploration of oil. If we allow this to happen to the Barents Sea, it will have serious consequences. Not only will it threaten the ecosystem, but an oil spill will be virtually impossible to detect and let alone to limit. The seabed is also potentially worthy of protection. To conclude; oil drilling in the Arctic is not showing us the path to a more sustainable future.